This cross-country study examined how park managers and decision makers in Southeast Asia responded in the face of pressures on PAs, and assessed the level of resource gaps based on a number of indicators. A sample of 402 PAs from Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed in the study. Of the 16 pressure and 15 response variables identified for the pressure-response analysis, the indicators of pressure were (1) number of inhabitants per 1,000 hectares (ha) (or per square kilometer) of PA; (2) population adjacent to the PA per 1,000 ha of the PA; (3) number of visitors per 1,000 ha; (4) length of trails per 1,000 ha; and (5) length of roads per 1,000 ha. The response indicators were (1) full-time staff per 1,000 ha; (2) number of enforcement staff per 1,000 ha; (3) expenditure for operations per hectare; and (4) patrol stations per 1,000 ha.

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Fiscal Gaps and Financing of Southeast Asia’s Protected Areas: A Cross-Country Analysis