The study surveyed rice farmers in two areas with the assumptions of the same natural condition and social characteristics. One is considered as the polluted area near and directly receiving waste-water from the industrial parks, while the other is assumed to be the non-polluted area far from and having no effect of industrial pollutants. The productivity loss of rice production caused by water pollution was estimated by the difference in rice yield between the two regions. The similar calculation was applied for cost increase and profit loss for using waste-water irrigation. The results showed that the yield loss of rice was about 0.67 tons per hectare per crop, VND 0.97 million for cost increase and totally 26 percent of profit loss due to water pollution. Moreover, the study also estimated that total cost increase of the whole interviewed households in the polluted area was about VND 144 million and approximately VND 474 million per crop for their total net economic loss because of water pollution.
The Costs of Industrial Water Pollution on Rice Production in Vietnam